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Example: A Comprehensive Community Involvement Approach: Raising Voices ( Uganda ) In Kampala, Uganda, the Centre for Domestic Violence Prevention was committed to working in Kawempe Division over a period of four years.The centre involved community members, staff from institutions such as the police and health centers, and other key stakeholders in analyzing the situation regarding domestic violence.Women’s Health Centre for Sexual Health in Tanzania, some communities that were unfamiliar with the language of rights found it quite threatening. “Approaching Old Problems in New Ways”, Gender and Development 15(1):95-109.
3) Presentation of the findings from the first two steps to the TV and radio actors and experts.
4) Development of a message brief or ‘blueprint’ for the creative team who will develop the TV and radio dramas.
Though community outreach strategies and mass media campaigns are two distinct strategies, the most effective examples of such approaches tend to combine mass media intervention with community-based action.
Programming Recommendations and Lessons Learned about employing community outreach and mobilization and mass media: Combine strategies via integrated programmes Programmes that integrate multiple strategies, usually group education with community outreach and mass media campaigns are more effective in changing gender norms and behaviour.
‘Ordinary’ community members (85 in fairly equal numbers of women and men) became community volunteers, counsellors, and activists.
They involved their friends, colleagues, neighbours and relatives with help and support from the organization.Mass media campaigns normally use radio, television, billboards or other media to reach a wide segment of a community.It also offers individuals, especially young people, anonymous access to valuable information and resources without having to go through others they may not trust (e.g. Entertainment-education or ‘edutainment’, is a particularly useful strategy that entails the “process of purposely designing and implementing a media message to both entertain and educate, in order to increase audience members’ knowledge about an educational issue, create favourable attitudes, shift social norms, and change overt behaviour” (Singhal et al., 2004).To address this issue in future programming, staff decided that the idea of women’s rights and health made little difference to women whose daily lives were limited by the threat of violence and reoriented the programme to focus on personal safety and control over the integrity of one’s body before turning attention to other human rights. (WHO Primary Prevention) Some of the theories employed in initiatives aimed at changing gender norms include: Employ a social norms approach A social norms approach uses communication techniques, such as social marketing, to: Foster healthier norms regarding gender roles, relationships and violence.Gather and disseminate data that highlight the gap between men’s perceptions of other men’s agreement with violence and sexist norms, and the reality.Together, communication and social marketing campaigns are some of the most popular means for engaging society in primary prevention.Evidence shows that these mediums can produce positive change in the attitudes and behaviours associated with men’s perpetration of violence against women (Donovan and Vlais 2005).Promote community ownership and sustained engagement In order to be effective in changing harmful beliefs and practices, such as violence against women, an initiative should engage directly with members of that community.By strengthening individuals’, groups’ and institutions’ capacity to be agents of change, programmes can work to ensure that activism will be sustained long after a specific project ends. Instil hope and excitement regarding alternatives to violence; Personalize the process by reflecting that each person can be a part of the solution; Engage community members to take up the issue and become activists themselves; Frame violence against women as the community’s responsibility, not as individual women’s problems; and Include men as part and parcel of community mobilization (Michau 2007).(For a discussion about how social norms approaches can be used to address violence against women, please see, for instance, Fostering Healthy Norms to Prevent Violence and Abuse: The Social Norms Approach by Alan Berkowitz 2006 available in English.Promote change at the societal level, beyond the individual Targeting boys’ and men’s individual behaviour alone will produce limited results.