Lastly it was equivalent to principalis, i.e., excellent, superior, and is so used by St. Duchesne, I, 249 sqq.): "Hic [Simplicius] constituit ad sanctum Petrum apostolum et ad sanctum Laurentium martyrem ebdomadias, ut presbyteri manerent, propter penitentes et baptismum: regio III ad sanctum Laurentium, regio prima ad sanctum Paulum, regio VI vel septima ad sanctum Petrum" (cf. The head of the cardinal-deacons was the archdeacon, also known as prior diaconorum cardinalium . Occasionally it is conferred by some distinguished prelate especially delegated by the pope.
This is the sense of the "Liber Pontificalis" when it says (ed. These eighteen deacons have each a church of Rome ; they are also, adds Johannes Diaconus, canons of the Lateran Basilica . In Austria, Spain, and Portugal the biretta is usually imposed by the sovereign or civil ruler.
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In the "Commentarius electionis Gregorii VII" the electors are said to be "Romanæ ecclesiæ cardinales clerici, acoliti, subdiaconi, diaconi, presbyteri" (Jaffé, Bibliotheca Rer. In the course of time and according as the papal headship of the Church manifested itself more and more, the volume of ecclesiastical and temporal business increased greatly at Rome, in consequence of which the popes called in neighbouring bishops to represent them at episcopal functions and to aid them with their counsel. XV , "Decet", 12 March, 1621, in "Bullarium Romanum", XII, 663 sq.). Wahrmund, "Ueber die kirchliche Zulässigkeit der Rekusation der übertragenen Kardinalswürde", in "Archiv f. Kirchenrecht", LXVII, 3 sqq.) The oath taken by the cardinals is quite similar to that taken by bishops. Hence the cardinals are obliged to reside at Rome and cannot leave the Papal States without permission of the pope.
Cardinal-subdeacons are often mentioned, and once even cardinal-acolytes. At present any form of publication suffices (Pius V, 29 Jan., 1571; Greg.
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The "Liber Pontificalis" says of Stephen III (768-772): "Erat enim hisdem præfatus beatissimus præsul ecclesiæ traditionis observator. The publication of the names may, in given circumstances, be made at a much later date. It is the duty of the cardinals to assist the pope at the chief liturgical services known as capellæ papales, to distinguish them from the capellæ cardinaliciæ, at which the pope is not present; also to counsel him and aid in the government of the Church (c. 2, X, de clerico non residente, III, 4; Leo X, "Supernæ", 5 May, 1514, § 28, in "Bullar. It is otherwise with foreign bishops created cardinals; they retain their dioceses and are not obliged to reside at Rome.
They also followed the custom, widespread in the early medieval period, of dealing with the important questions in synodal meetings. Creation of cardinals in petto is therefore without effect, unless there follows publication of the names. Pius IX announced (15 March, 1875) a creation of cardinals in petto with publication of their names in his testament, but this creation never went into effect. from the end of the Western Schism, during which there were many cardinals created by the contending popes, it became customary for the pope to create cardinals without declaring their names ( creati et reservati in pectore ), the Italian equivalent for which is in petto . Eubel, "Zur Kardinalsernennung des Dominicus Capranica", in "Röm. By virtue of canonical obedience the pope could compel an unwilling person to accept the cardinalitial dignity. But the cardinal must swear that he will defend conscientiously the papal Bulls concerning non-alienation of the possessions of the Roman Church , nepotism, and papal elections, likewise his own cardinalitial dignity. The violation of this law entails grave penalties, even the loss of the cardinalitial dignity (C.